White Paper: Testing passive networks in distributed antenna systems (DAS)

In the last decade, worldwide consumer demand for cellular services has driven network operators to strive for better network coverage and within that coverage footprint, better network capacity. Since more than 80 % of cellular traffic comes from inside a building, in-building coverage, and in-building capacity have become a focus of this effort. In addition,…

White Paper: LTE mobile network optimization – a definitive guide

LTE KPIs

This white paper explains the specific field level and key performance indicators that impact the performance and optimization of an LTE network. In order to have good end-to-end performance, each and every performance indicator needs to be optimized. While a single KPI can affect the user experience in a specific context, true performance management is…

White Paper: Radio fundamentals for cellular networks

Cellular technologies have advanced from first generation (1G) analog technologies to advanced high performance fourth generation (4G) and fifth generation (5G) systems in just four decades. Despite the increase in complexity of wireless standards and devices, cellular technologies maintain a set of common principles that form the basis behind the design of cellular systems. In…

Linearization of RF Frontends

This White Paper, (i) proposes a classification of Linearization schemes, (ii) introduces the hard limiter, (iii) illustrates linearization of an exemplary mmWave PA using non-DPD techniques, and (iv) introduces a class of linearized transmitters that create their signal and linearity from efficiently generated components.

Antenna Basics

This white paper describes the basic functionality of antennas. Starting with Hertz’s Antenna model followed by a short introduction to the fundamentals of wave propagation, the important general characteristics of an antenna and its associated parameters are explained. A more detailed explanation of the functionality of some selected antenna types concludes this white paper.

LTE UE receiver performance measurements

LTE user equipment (UE) receiver performance has significant impact to cellular radio network coverage and capacity. It determines the maximum data throughput across the air interface between the LTE base station (eNB, evolved node B) and the mobile network subscriber UE, thus it determines the total capacity across the air interface. Therefore, it is one…

Antenna Array Testing – Conducted and Over the Air: The Way to 5G

5G networks will need to offer more capacity and flexibility while lowering the operational expenses of the system. Two new technologies can simultaneously address both the increase in capacity and the increase in energy efficiency: Virtualization & Massive MIMO. This white paper provides an overview of test solutions addressing current and future requirements for antenna…

Millimeter-Wave Beamforming: Antenna Arrays & Characterization

Millimeter-wave bands are of increasing interest for the satellite industry and under discussion as potential 5G bands. Antennas for 5G applications make use of the shorter element sizes at these high frequencies to incorporate a larger count of radiating elements. These antenna arrays are essential for beamforming operations that play an important part in next…

LTE Release 9 Technology Introduction – White Paper

The LTE technology as specified within 3GPP Release 8 was first commercially deployed by end 2009. Since then the number of operators implementing the technology is strongly increasing around the globe. LTE has become the fastest developing mobile system technology. The same way GSM and WCDMA have been enhanced with additional features over time, LTE…