White Paper: Radio fundamentals for cellular networks

Cellular technologies have advanced from first generation (1G) analog technologies to advanced high performance fourth generation (4G) and fifth generation (5G) systems in just four decades. Despite the increase in complexity of wireless standards and devices, cellular technologies maintain a set of common principles that form the basis behind the design of cellular systems. In…

Linearization of RF Frontends

This White Paper, (i) proposes a classification of Linearization schemes, (ii) introduces the hard limiter, (iii) illustrates linearization of an exemplary mmWave PA using non-DPD techniques, and (iv) introduces a class of linearized transmitters that create their signal and linearity from efficiently generated components.

Antenna Basics

This white paper describes the basic functionality of antennas. Starting with Hertz’s Antenna model followed by a short introduction to the fundamentals of wave propagation, the important general characteristics of an antenna and its associated parameters are explained. A more detailed explanation of the functionality of some selected antenna types concludes this white paper.

LTE UE receiver performance measurements

LTE user equipment (UE) receiver performance has significant impact to cellular radio network coverage and capacity. It determines the maximum data throughput across the air interface between the LTE base station (eNB, evolved node B) and the mobile network subscriber UE, thus it determines the total capacity across the air interface. Therefore, it is one…

Antenna Array Testing – Conducted and Over the Air: The Way to 5G

5G networks will need to offer more capacity and flexibility while lowering the operational expenses of the system. Two new technologies can simultaneously address both the increase in capacity and the increase in energy efficiency: Virtualization & Massive MIMO. This white paper provides an overview of test solutions addressing current and future requirements for antenna…

Millimeter-Wave Beamforming: Antenna Arrays & Characterization

Millimeter-wave bands are of increasing interest for the satellite industry and under discussion as potential 5G bands. Antennas for 5G applications make use of the shorter element sizes at these high frequencies to incorporate a larger count of radiating elements. These antenna arrays are essential for beamforming operations that play an important part in next…

LTE Release 9 Technology Introduction – White Paper

The LTE technology as specified within 3GPP Release 8 was first commercially deployed by end 2009. Since then the number of operators implementing the technology is strongly increasing around the globe. LTE has become the fastest developing mobile system technology. The same way GSM and WCDMA have been enhanced with additional features over time, LTE…

WLAN Traffic Offload in LTE

This whitepaper provides an overview of the WLAN offload in LTE as standardized by 3GPP, as well as the enhancements for Wi-Fi standardized by IEEE and the Wi-Fi Alliance. It also describes access methods in the joint network, treats the security, and describes IP mobility. In addition network discovery and selection are explained.

Voice and SMS in LTE

This white paper summarizes the technology options for supporting voice and short message service (SMS) in LTE, including circuit switched fallback (CSFB), SMS over SGs, and voice over LTE (VoLTE). It includes background information on the standardization process, and the commercial implications for the different options. The white paper also addresses test and measurement requirements…